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Conflicts between Arabs and Byzantines, 7th-10th c., war tactics in Asia Minor

Author(s) : Makripoulias Christos (10/10/2003)
Translation : Chrysanthopoulos Dimitrios

For citation: Makripoulias Christos, "Conflicts between Arabs and Byzantines, 7th-10th c., war tactics in Asia Minor",
Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=10071>

Συγκρούσεις Αραβοβυζαντινές στη Μ. Ασία, 7ος-10ος αι., Πολεμική Τακτική  (2/15/2006 v.1) Conflicts between Arabs and Byzantines, 7th-10th c., war tactics in Asia Minor (7/6/2010 v.1) 



The supreme religious and political authority of Muslims, considered successor of Muhammad (Arabic: khalifa = deputy). He was the head of the Caliphate, the religious state of the Arabs.

A dignitary of the Byzantine thematic administration in Asia Minor. The expelator was responsible for quickly evacuating civilians in times of raids and securely lead them to safe locations, such as fortresses or mountains.

A watch-tower where fire or smoke signals were used to provide early warning on incoming raids.

(lat. clausura) Byzantine military term. Kleisoura initially designated a mountain passage; from the 7th c. onwards it also meant the military unit responsible for the defence of the passage. The term is also used for an administrative division (smaller than the theme). Its base was in a rough site close to the border, and its administration and economy was not necessarily the jurisdiction of the strategos of the theme. It is considered as the evolution of tourma.

(and kleisouriarch) a Byzantine term denoting the commander of a kleisoura or a kleisarchy. These were military units responsible for the defence of mountain passes; the term is also used to desifnate an administrative unit smaller than the theme.

An administrative unit in the Roman and Byzantine Empire. Established in the Roman Empire it is radically reformed by Diocletian, who abolishes the distinction between imperial and senatorial provinces and increases their number by dividing large provinces into smaller ones. Moreover, Diocletian divided the State into 12 dioceses, which included groups of provinces. Administrative reformations in the Byzantine era further increased the number of provinces while reducing their size. Provinces survived until the emrgence of the administrative system of the themes, around 7th c. However the term appears on commerciarii seals until the 9th c., and in written sources of the 11th-12th c. as a synonym of the theme.

strategos ("general")
During the Roman period his duties were mainly political. Οffice of the Byzantine state´s provincial administration. At first the title was given to the military and political administrator of the themes, namely of the big geographic and administrative unities of the Byzantine empire. Gradually the title lost its power and, already in the 11th century, strategoi were turned to simple commanders of military units, responsible for the defence of a region.

Civilian and military commander of a tourma, subdivision of a theme.


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